2019年4月23日 星期二

关于“一带一路”你应该知道的11件事

“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛5月14日在北京召开,双语君(微信ID:Chinadaily_Mobile)为大家及时总结了专家们提出的关于

“一带一路”的11个事实,一起来了解下吧。


1

一带一路”倡议并非美国马歇尔计划的现代版
The Belt and Road Initiative is not a modern version of the US' Marshall Plan.

 

 

梅新育,现任商务部国际贸易经济合作研究院研究员

China has no intention of challenging the current US-dominated global economic and political systems, and its Belt and Road Initiative-the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road-is by no means comparable to the United States' Marshall Plan, which is considered, to some extent, to have led to the Cold War.
中国并不打算挑战美国主导的当今全球政治经济体系,“一带一路”(“丝绸之路经济带”和“21世纪海上丝绸之路”的简称)倡议也绝无可能与马歇尔计划相较,毕竟后者普遍被认为在某种程度上引发了冷战。

Although China is promoting a series of bilateral and regional free trade agreements, its objective is not similar to the British Empire's pre-World War II "Imperial Preference", and is not to create a world market parallel to that led by the US.
虽然中国正努力推进一系列双边及区域自由贸易协议的签订,其目标却并非构建二战后大英帝国实施的“帝国特惠制”,更非构建和美国主导的市场相似的全球市场。

The US-led international financial system is unfair, but it is not in China's interest to change the system. More importantly, any drastic change in the system would create uncertainties and risks, which no economy wants.
美国主导的国际金融体系并不公平,但中国并不打算改变这一体系。况且,该体系的任何剧烈变动都有可能增加不稳定性和风险,而这两者是所有经济体希望极力避免的。

China believes in reform, and it is optimistic about making the international financial system more efficient by supplementing the roles of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. It knows that only a multilateral trade system can meet its demand for an expanding global market, which is why it has an open mind on many Western-dominated international trade arrangements, while the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank will take an inclusive approach to create an improved international financial system.
中国相信改革的力量,并对支持国际基金组织、世界银行及亚洲发展银行以促进国际金融体系高效化持乐观态度。中国明白只有多边贸易体系才能满足自身不断扩大全球市场的需求,也因此对许多西方主导的国际贸易协定抱有开放的心态。与此同时,亚洲基础设施投资银行也将兼收并蓄以构建完善的国际金融体系。


2

“一带一路”倡议将同欧亚经济联盟对接
The initiative will be connected with the Eurasian Economic Union.

 

吉尔吉斯斯坦前总理卓奥马尔特·奥托尔巴耶夫(Djoomart Otorbaev),北京师范大学新兴市场研究院客座教授

With the same aim as the Belt and Road Initiative, the Eurasian Economic Union was formed in 2015 as a purely economic union, which currently includes five countries. The EEU aims to break barriers to market access in the five member nations and further deepen economic cooperation within an integrated single market of 183 million people.
欧亚经济联盟(EEU)成立于2015年,目前有5个成员国。该联盟和“一带一路”倡议目标一致,为一个纯粹的经济联盟。EEU致力于打破五个成员国之间的市场准入壁垒,并在1.83亿人的单一市场中深化经济合作。

To meet the expectations of the leaders of China and Russia-who are the pioneers of the Belt and Road Initiative and the EEU respectively-the two initiatives should find ways to integrate, based on natural geographic peculiarities and complementary advantages. We need to meet each other more regularly to research how to harmonize the bilateral procedures that already exist between China and members of the EEU.
为了满足中国和俄罗斯领导人(分别是“一带一路”和EEU的倡议者)的期望,这两个倡议应根据自然地理特征和互补优势找到系统整合的途径。中俄领导人之间需要增加会面频率,以探讨如何协调中国与EEU成员国之间现存的双边程序。

The Chinese leadership is persuasive and expectant in its commitment to the success of this initiative, and things will move in the right direction with financial and human resources, and knowledge.
中国领导层对 “一带一路”成功实施的承诺是有说服力、令人期待的。我们相信事情将会随着财力人力资源及知识流动而顺利发展。

Facing a large international community, China needs to learn how to do things in the right way given its long and rich, but mainly inward-oriented, history, and to accept its leadership role.
面对一个庞大的国际化社会,鉴于其源远流长但以对内发展为主的历史,中国应学着适应以采取正确的方法做事,并接受自己的领导地位。

The initiative, linking China to Eurasia and Europe, is not at all only about infrastructure, but also about soft power and advancing the understanding of different people and countries along the two ancient trade routes. It's not a traditional bilateral system, but a truly regional, multinational, multilateral network and thus, it needs to be designed with precision.
连结中国至亚欧交接处乃至于欧洲的“一带一路”倡议,不仅仅只是为了推动基础设施建设,更是为了增强国家软实力、促进这两条贸易古道沿线上不同国家和人民相互理解。这不是传统的双边体系,而是一个真正区域化、多国化的多边网络。也因此,需要审慎的规划设计。


3

“一带一路”倡议给全球经济治理带来了新思路
The initiative brings a new mindset to global economic governance.

 

 

梁海明,丝路智谷研究院院长兼首席经济学家

Despite the recovering US economy, Washington under the watch of US President Donald Trump is poised to accord priority to economic issues at home, rather than abroad. That, to some extent, means Beijing is required to propose a plan to address the economic woes haunting many other countries.
尽管美国经济处于复苏之中,以总统唐纳德·特朗普为首的美国政府仍准备将国内经济问题置于首位,而非国际经济问题。这在某种程度上意味着将需要中国政府出台计划,以帮助解决困扰许多其他国家的经济窘境。

The implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative is a boon to sluggish global growth. It is conducive to expanding global demand and revitalizing global growth, marking a breakthrough in both China's interaction with other economies and global economic governance.
“一带一路”倡议的实施有助于改善全球经济增速放缓。该倡议有助于扩大全球市场需求、恢复全球经济增长活力,也标志着全球经济治理和中国在和其他经济体互动上取得的突破。

In particular, China's proposal to explore third-party market cooperation could bring benefits to Western nations and developing countries along the Belt and Road, without causing a clash of interests. Projects involving China, France and some French-speaking African countries are a case in point.
此外,中国和第三方市场的合作计划可以为沿线西方国家和发展中国家带来诸多好处,而不会造成利益冲突。囊括中、法及一些说法语的非洲国家的项目就是一个很好的例子。

For emerging economies, the initiative means more investment and bilateral trade deals, which may grant them greater economic sway. For countries that are less industrialized and heavily reliant on manufacturing, China's financial and technological assistance following its Belt and Road projects will be of great value.
对于新兴经济体来说,“一带一路”倡议意味着更多的投资和双边贸易,会给他们带来强烈的经济冲击。对于工业化程度不高、严重依靠制造业的国家来说,中国“一带一路”倡议带来的财力和技术支持具有巨大价值。


4

该倡议兼收并蓄,将为其他发展中国家提供机会
The inclusive initiative will provide opportunities for other developing countries.

 

 


王义桅,中国人民大学国际关系学院教授

This month, China holds a high-level international cooperation forum on the Belt and Road Initiative that focuses on global recovery, rebalancing, renovation and reconnection in response to rising concerns about global governance. Proposed in 2013 and unlike traditional globalization backed by tariff reductions, the initiative is aimed at improving connectivity between regions and boosting global growth through infrastructure construction, among other things.
5月,由中国主办的“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛于北京举行。论坛主要关注促进全球经济复苏及更平衡、协调和联动发展,以回应大众日益关切的全球经济治理问题。“一带一路”倡议于2013年提出,不同于传统以减免关税为支撑的全球化倡议,该倡议致力于推动区域间的互联互通,以及通过基础设施建设促进全球经济增长等。

The initiative, which focuses on Eurasian infrastructure and better land and sea connectivity, is expected to elevate 3 billion people to middle class status by 2050 and help increase global trade by $2.5 trillion in the next decade.
该倡议主要关注欧亚大陆基础设施建设及形成更好的海陆联通,其目标是到2050年让30亿人步入中产阶级,并在未来十年里促使全球贸易增加2.5万亿美元。

There is good reason to believe that the initiative can hit its targets, because every $1 increase in infrastructure investment in developing economies can raise their imports by $7 US cents, half of which comes from developed countries, as Justin Yifu Lin, former vice-president of the World Bank, has said. In other words, the West, too, can benefit from an increase in exports as the initiative stimulates global infrastructure investment.
世界银行副总裁林毅夫认为,有理由相信“一带一路”倡议将会成功达成其目标,因为发展中国家接受的基础设施建设投资每增长1美元,其进口额将增长7美分,而其中的一半都是来自发达国家的出口。换句话说,由于“一带一路”倡议促进了全球基础设施建设投资增长,西方国家也可因出口额增长而获利。


5

“一带一路”倡议的前期收益意义重大
The early harvests of the initiative are of great significance.

 

 

张菲,商务部国际贸易经济合作研究院副研究员

More than 100 countries and international organizations have become part of the China-led Belt and Road Initiative, and more than 30 countries along the two routes have signed cooperative agreements with China. The initiative has also won the approval of important economic blocs, such as the European Union and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, while a number of member nations of the two blocs have signed trade and investment agreements with China. Moreover, a United Nations resolution on Afghanistan, passed three months ago, voiced vocal support for the initiative, encouraging all UN members to participate to revive the war-stricken country's economy.
已有超过100个国家和国际组织参与了中国主导的“一带一路”倡议,并已有超过30个沿线国家和中国签订了合作协议。该倡议已获欧盟和东盟的支持,且部分来自欧盟和东盟的成员国已与中国签订了贸易和投资协议。此外,三个月前通过的联合国有关阿富汗问题的决议,声援了“一带一路”倡议,并鼓励所有联合国成员国帮助阿富汗恢复战后经济。

Last year alone, Chinese enterprises invested at least $14.5 billion in markets that make up the network that connects Asia, Europe and Africa, and covers more than 60 countries and regions with a total population of about 4.4 billion. It has also set up 65 trade cooperation zones along the way.
光去年一年,中国企业至少在市场中投资了145亿美元,构建连接亚洲、欧洲和非洲的网络,覆盖60余个国家和地区,涉及总人口约44亿。同时,还建立了65个贸易合作区。

These achievements would not have been possible without the support of local governments and enterprises, which is evidence that the Belt and Road projects can live up to their inclusive and reciprocal nature. Although most of the projects are related to infrastructure connectivity, meaning considerable funds are often needed to start them and making profits can take some years, participating enterprises, particularly those in the West, can grab a decent share of the profits, if they play along.
如果没有当地政府和企业的支持,上述成就是不可能实现的。这也表明了“一带一路”的项目具有包容性和互惠性的特征。虽然其中大多数都与基础设施的联通建设相关,意味着需要大量的启动资金且可能需要多年时间才能盈利,但参与项目的企业,尤其是西方国家的企业,如果参与合作,将获得不菲的利润份额。


6

“一带一路”倡议将帮助中国更好地应对经济发展新常态
The initiative will help China better address the new normal in economic development.

 

 

薛力,中国社会科学院世界经济与政治研究所国际战略研究室主任

The Belt and Road Initiative is in line with efforts to facilitate China's economic transformation. Chinese enterprises are seeking to leave the lower end of global value chains and manufacture more high-value-added products. A rise in labor costs and excessive capacity will inevitably drive Chinese companies to explore markets in neighboring countries, which also welcome China's assistance, for instance, in infrastructure.
“一带一路”倡议有利于促进中国实现经济转型。中国企业希望走出全球价值链的低端,生产更多高附加值产品。中国国内劳动力成本上升以及产能过剩势必推动中国企业开拓邻国市场,而这些邻国也欢迎中国提供援助,比如基础设施建设方面。

It can be challenging to persuade labor-intensive private enterprises to venture across borders, as their founders, who are often aging but still in charge, find it less appealing to explore overseas markets. But it is a step that has to be made considering the economic transitions, and the initiative could present game-changing opportunities.
说服劳动密集型私营企业开拓海外市场并不容易,因为这些企业的创始人往往已步入老年,但仍然在主持大局,他们认为拓展海外市场没有多少吸引力。但这是实现经济转型必须要走的一步,而且“一带一路”倡议能够提供促进企业转型的机会。

By placing underdeveloped western Chinese provinces and regions at the forefront of the process of opening-up, the initiative also has great potential to narrow the development gap between China's east and west.
“一带一路”倡议将中国西部欠发达省份和地区至于对外开放的前沿阵地,有望缩小中国东西部发展差距。


7

“一带一路”倡议有助于推动国际能源合作
The initiative will help boost international energy cooperation.

 

 

阿赫塔尔(Shamshad Akhtar),联合国副秘书长兼亚太经社会执行秘书

The Belt and Road Initiative will generate mutual benefits for China and its partners. However, the economic, social and environmental costs and benefits vary across borders, depending on the terrain, stage of development, production capacities and traffic flows.
“一带一路”倡议将使中国和其合作伙伴实现互惠互利。但是实施该倡议要付出的经济、社会、环境成本以及取得的回报却因地而异,取决于各国的地理位置,发展水平,生产能力和交通状况。

With nearly two-thirds of Belt and Road countries facing energy deficits, the initiative needs to complement and supplement subregional energy connectivity initiatives. There is huge scope to develop power grids; promote smart, green and integrated power and gas markets; and extend cross-border gas and oil pipelines from resource-rich Central Asia to South and East Asia. Drawing on the initiatives of China's State Grid and the Global Energy Interconnection Development Cooperation Organization to promote global energy interconnections will help to enhance the region's energy security and improve access to sustainable energy.
“一带一路”沿线近三分之二的国家都存在能源短缺问题,因此实施该倡议需辅以沿线国家局部地区能源联通计划。电网发展潜力巨大;拓展智能、清洁、集成电力和天然气市场;修建跨境油气管道,将中亚地区丰富的油气资源输送到南亚和东亚。通过中国国家电网计划和全球能源互联网发展合作组织推动全球能源互联互通有助于加强沿线国家能源安全,推广可持续能源。


8

“一带一路”倡议将开启全球互联互通的新时代
The initiative will kick-start a new era in global interconnectivity.

 

赵磊,中共中央党校国际战略研究院教授

At the core of the Belt and Road Initiative is interconnectivity, which has multiple implications for all parties concerned. On the economic front, it stresses the importance of win-win cooperation and bringing tangible dividends to the international community. The projects on cross-region connectivity, trade exchanges and capacity cooperation are aimed at expanding demand and thus rebalancing the global economy.
“一带一路”倡议的核心是互联互通,对有关各方有多方面的影响。在经济方面,该倡议强调互利合作以及给国际社会带来实打实的红利的重要性。跨区域互联互通、贸易交流和产能合作等项目旨在扩大需求,调整全球经济使其恢复平衡。

This bodes well for Belt and Road countries in pursuit of advanced industrialization and modernization, as well as better infrastructure, against a backdrop of uncertain global growth.
在全球经济发展充满不确定性的背景下,对于想要完善基础设施,实现先进工业化和现代化的沿线国家而言,“一带一路”倡议无疑是个好消息。

Aimed at shared development of all countries involved, the initiative is also about providing public goods and optimizing global governance. China is more than willing to offer tangible, ideological and institutional public goods to the international community. It has not only helped other developing economies with infrastructure construction, but also endeavored to institutionalize its endorsement of extensive interconnectivity, which is poised to provide more inclusivity than the Western-led elite clubs.
“一带一路”倡议旨在促进所有参与国的共同发展,因此倡议也会涉及供应公共品和优化全球治理问题。中国非常乐意为国际社会提供可见的,观念和制度层面的公共产品。中国不仅帮助其他发展中国家建设基础设施,还努力促使广泛的互联互通实现制度化,而中国所倡导的互联互通比西方国家主导的精英国家集团更具包容性。

9

“一带一路”倡议为中国包容、合作的外交政策奠定基调
The initiative sets the tone for China's inclusive and cooperative foreign policy.

 

 

王志民教授,对外经济贸易大学全球化与中国现代化问题研究所所长

China's approach to the Belt and Road Initiative mirrors its independent, nonaligned diplomatic stance. As a longtime opponent of a winner-takes-all philosophy, China signed memorandums of understanding and agreements with at least 56 countries and regional organizations last year, covering both developed and developing communities.
中国提出的“一带一路”倡议反映出其独立自主,不结盟的外交立场。中国历来反对“赢者通吃”,去年与至少56个国家和地区性组织签署谅解备忘录和协议,其中既有发达国家也有发展中国家。

The inclusive and open nature of the initiative could supplement the existing international order. Old multinational organizations, including the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have played their parts, but many of them do not pay enough attention to the need for infrastructure in the developing world.
“一带一路”倡议包容、开放的特征能弥补现有国际秩序的不足。包括世界银行和亚洲发展银行在内的现存的多国组织已发挥了各自的作用,但这些组织大多没有对广大发展中国家的基础设施需求给予足够重视。

The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, for one, is designed to resolve the problem. Other Beijing-proposed financing institutions, such as the New Development Bank, will not only bring new business opportunities to other economies, but also prop up the overseas operations of Belt and Road projects.
亚洲基础设施投资银行就旨在解决这一问题。北京倡导的其他金融机构,比如新发展银行,不仅将给其他经济体带来新商机,而且将为“一带一路”倡议在海外开展提供坚强后盾。

The implementation of the initiative is conducive to enhancing infrastructure worldwide, boosting developing countries' production and consumption, and striking a balance between virtual and bricks-and-mortar economies. It aims to replace hegemonism and power politics, and help forge fairer global governance.
“一带一路”倡议的实施将有利于完善全球基础设施,刺激发展中国家的生产和消费,使虚拟经济和实体经济保持平衡。该倡议旨在取代霸权主义和强权政治,使全球治理更加公平。


10

“一带一路”倡议获得国际社会的大力支持
The initiative has huge support from the international community.

 

 

储殷,中国与全球化智库(CCG)研究员

The past year saw major Belt and Road projects making huge progress and beginning to pay dividends for countries along the two routes. With a capacity of 50 megawatts and an annual average power generation of about 317 gigawatt-hours, the Upper Marsyangdi A Hydropower Station, the first hydroelectric project built in Nepal by a Chinese enterprise-Power Construction Corp of China-has been put into operation.
去年,“一带一路”重大项目成效显著,开始回报沿线国家。中国企业——中国电建集团在尼泊尔建设的首个电力项目——装机总量为50兆瓦,年均发电量约为317吉瓦时的上马相迪A水电站已投入运营。

The Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway, which connects the capital cities of Ethiopia and Djibouti, and was inaugurated two months ago, is Africa's first cross-border standard gauge rail line as well as the first railway outside of China to be built in line with Chinese standards, using Chinese technology and equipment. Such projects are a boon for countries with underdeveloped infrastructure and have great potential to increase employment and economic growth.
连接埃塞俄比亚(Ethiopia)和吉布提(Djibouti)两国首都的亚的斯亚贝巴-吉布提铁路(The Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway)两个月前正式建成通车。该铁路是非洲首条跨境标准规矩铁路线,也是中国境外首条按照中国标准、采用中国技术和设备建造的铁路。此类项目给基础设施落后的国家带来了福音,有望增加就业,促进经济发展。

Moreover, an increasing number of Chinese enterprises, including private ones, are willing to explore overseas markets covered by the Belt and Road Initiative. Their increasingly active participation further promotes the initiative. As a result, more countries along the routes are now willing to cooperate with Chinese companies, adding more weight to China's role as a leader in global governance.
此外,越来越多的中国企业,包括私营企业,乐意在“一带一路”沿线国家开拓市场。这些企业日益高涨的参与热情能够进一步促进“一带一路”倡议的发展。因此,沿线越来越多的国家愿意与中国企业合作,进一步巩固了中国在全球治理中的领导者角色。

The Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway, for instance, is a game-changer in the eyes of some local officials, because it reinforces the development of industrial parks, special economic zones and other industrial chains along the way. Countries such as Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar have experienced the same changes through similar cooperation in the past three years. The initiative will produce both tangible and intangible benefits to safeguard peaceful development and recalibrate the world order in a fairer, more reasonable direction.
比如,一些当地官员认为亚的斯亚贝巴-吉布提铁路将给沿线地区带来翻天覆地的变化,因为该铁路能够促进沿线工业园区、经济特区和其他产业链的发展。过去三年,中国与柬埔寨、老挝、缅甸等国开展了类似合作,促进了这些国家的工业发展。“一带一路”倡议将创造很多有形以及无形的利益以捍卫和平发展进程,使世界秩序更加公平合理。


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“一带一路”倡议将有助于传播中国软实力
The initiative will help spread China's soft power abroad.

 

 


梁亚斌,中央党校国际战略研究所副教授

For historical and ideological reasons, there have been many attempts to play up the so-called China threat, casting a shadow over China's peaceful development and even fueling concerns about the Belt and Road Initiative. It is vital that Beijing translates its soft power into a language that can be understood by the rest of the world, like the "lean, clean and green" governance championed by the AIIB.
历史和意识形态原因使得很多人企图鼓吹所谓的中国威胁论,这给中国的和平发展进程蒙上了阴影,甚至引发了对“一带一路”倡议的担忧。因此,将其软实力转化为一种全世界都能理解的语言对中国而言至关重要,比如亚投行倡导的建立“精干、清洁及绿色”银行。

To carry out its Belt and Road ambitions, China needs to disseminate its geopolitical perspective to relevant countries. China should make it clear that the pursuit of the transnational initiative go beyond ideological and cultural differences, and that its peaceful rise will not come at the cost of other countries' interests.
为实施“一带一路”倡议,中国需要向相关国家传达其地缘政治观点。中国应表明立场,即这一跨国倡议所追求的目标超越了意识形态和文化差异,并且中国的和平崛起不会以损害别国的利益为代价。

Translating the Chinese narrative of shared development into a universal language is a viable solution to geopolitical misunderstandings and will expedite the promotion of the initiative.
用一种全球都能理解的通用语言阐释中国促进共同发展的目标是解决地缘政治误解的可行办法,同时也将推进“一带一路”倡议的实施。

 

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